What is Sand? Composition, Colors and Various Types of Sand


Sand is more than something that blankets beaches and deserts. It is ubiquitous, much more diverse and, an authentic relic. As Rachel Carson, the American marine biologist once quoted, “In every curving beach, in every grain of sand, there is a story of the Earth.” So, what is sand? Where does sand come from? What’s … Read more

What is a Valley Landform: Formation and Types of Valleys


Valleys are the most predominant landforms on the face of the earth. They are found on virtually every continent on planet earth, along sea bottoms, and other planets. Valleys assume a wide array of forms, from broad plains to steep-sided canyons. The kind of valley created depends on numerous factors, for instance, the erosion medium, … Read more

What is a Mountain Landform: Formation and Types of Mountains


Of all the landforms on earth, mountains loom large in people’s imagination. From ancient times, many have viewed these mysterious places as home to supernatural beings or gods. Others have viewed them as the hallmark in human escapade. Mountain climbing is one such escapade and is seen as an intense experiment of human desire and … Read more

What is a Mineral and How do Minerals Form and it’s Properties


Many have looked at a rock and wondered how it came to be. Well, the history of rocks begun about 4.5 billion years ago, when dust and gas combined to form the very rocks that make up our beautiful planet. Rocks are the stuff of stars since they were created from elements harnessed far of … Read more

Theory and Evidence of Seafloor Spreading


Seafloor spreading is a geologic process where there is a gradual addition of new oceanic crust in the ocean floor through a volcanic activity while moving the older rocks away from the mid-oceanic ridge. The mid-ocean ridge is where the seafloor spreading occurs, in which tectonic plates—large slabs of Earth’s lithosphere—split apart from each other. Seafloor … Read more

What is Soil, its Importance and What Are Different Layers of Soil


Soil is the part of the earth’s surface comprised of disintegrated rock and humus that provides the medium for plant growth. The development of soil takes time, between hundreds and thousands of years, and consists of diverse materials which are both inorganic and organic. The inorganic materials are the non-living aspects of the soil such … Read more

What are Landforms and Major Types of Landforms on the Earth


Landforms are the natural features and shapes existent on the face of the earth. Landforms possess many different physical characteristics and are spread out throughout the planet. Together, landforms constitute a specific terrain and their physical arrangement in the landscape forms what is termed as topography. The physical features of landforms include slope, elevation, rock … Read more

Biological Weathering – Definition and Types


Biological weathering also means organic weathering. It is the disintegration of rocks as a result of the action by living organisms. Plant and animals have a significant effect on the rocks as they penetrate or burrow into the soil respectively. Biological weathering can work hand in hand with physical weathering by weakening rock or exposing … Read more

What is a Rock and What are 3 Basic Types of Rocks


Rocks ordinarily lie everywhere on the ground of the Earth. They constitute most of the landforms, as we often notice. For instance, rocks make up the mountains and most of the non-water portions of the earth’s surface. A rock is hence defined as a solid naturally occurring mass of consolidated mineral matter. This is because … Read more

Physical Weathering – Definition, Processes and Types


Physical weathering is also referred to as mechanical weathering. It is the weakening of rocks followed by disintegration due to the physical or mechanical forces including the actions on the rocks by abrasion, frost chattering, temperature fluctuations and salt crystal growth. External environmental forces such as wind, water waves, and rain also consistently exert pressure … Read more

Chemical Weathering – Definition, Processes and Types


Chemical weathering pertains to the changes in rock structure under the action or influence of chemical reactions. There are hundreds of natural chemical processes and reactions within the rocks the change the composition and the structure of the rocks over time. Temperature and, especially, moisture are critical for chemical weathering. Chemical weathering, therefore, occurs more quickly in … Read more