What is a Mineral and How do Minerals Form and it’s Properties


What is a Mineral? Many have looked at a rock and wondered how it came to be. Well, the history of rocks begun about 4.5 billion years ago, when dust and gas combined to form the very rocks that make up our beautiful planet. Rocks are the stuff of stars since they were created from … Read more

Theory and Evidence of Seafloor Spreading


The Theory of Seafloor Spreading Seafloor spreading is a geologic process where there is a gradual addition of new oceanic crust in the ocean floor through a volcanic activity while moving the older rocks away from the mid-oceanic ridge. The mid-ocean ridge is where the seafloor spreading occurs, in which tectonic plates—large slabs of Earth’s lithosphere—split … Read more

What are Geological Faults? Causes and Types of Geological Faults


What are Geological Faults? In geology, a fault is a discontinuity that is formed by fracture in the surface rocks of the Earth (up to 200 km deep) when tectonic forces exceed the resistance of the rocks. In other words, a fault is a crack in the Earth’s crust. The rupture zone has a generally well defined … Read more

The Four Main Spheres of Earth: Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere and Atmosphere


What is Earth? The earth is the 3rd planet from the sun between Venus and Mars. The earth is made up of several unique properties, characteristics, composition and they all affect the processes of the earth differently. Every of these properties and elements in Earth’s system are largely categorized into one of the four major … Read more

What is Oxygen Cycle and Process of Oxygen Cycle


What is Oxygen Cycle? The oxygen cycle elaborates how oxygen circulates in various forms through nature. Oxygen occurs freely in the air, trapped in the earth crust as chemical compounds, or dissolved in water. Oxygen in the atmosphere is about 21%, and it is the second most abundant gas after nitrogen. It is mostly utilized … Read more

What are the Different Layers of The Earth?


Overview of The Earth The earth is technically the 3rd planet from the sun between Venus and Mars and has an equatorial diameter of 12,755 kilometers (7926 miles) and a polar diameter of 149.6 million kilometers (92.9 million miles). The earth is in a constant state of motion as it revolves round the sun, which … Read more

Types and Principles of Plate Tectonics Boundaries


What is Plate Tectonics? Plate tectonics defines the movements and features of the Earth’s surface now and in the past. The theory of plate tectonics was advanced in the 1960s and 1970s to generate new information about the Earth’s ancient magnetism, the nature of the ocean floor, the flow of heat from the Earth’s interior, … Read more